Cardiological diseases can be divided into 4 groups:
1. Diseases of blood vessels that feed the heart
2. Diseases of the electrical system of the heart
3. Diseases of the muscular system (chronic heart failure)
4. Diseases of the heart valves (incomplete opening, valve failure).
Often, these diseases go together, complicating the process of treatment and rehabilitation. For example, a patient who has a coronary artery occlusion suffers from a heart attack; subsequently, his heart muscle is depleted, and the body accumulates fluid above the permissible level. This, in turn, leads to non-closure of the heart valves, leakage from the valves, and heart rhythm disorder.
Let's take a short look at all 4 types of cardiac diseases:
What do “diseases of the vessels that feed the heart” mean?
Like any other organ, the heart also needs to be supplied with blood and oxygen. The heart takes blood from the arteries. As an analog to this example, consider arteries as ordinary "pipes". If the pipe from the sink in our house becomes dirty, the passage of water becomes difficult and clogs are formed. Exactly the same pattern happens with the heart: with the narrowing or clogging of any vessel, blood rich in oxygen cannot go to the heart. Coronary artery occlusions are formed from (cholesterol) plaques.
These "plumbing" problems are caused as a result of delayed blood flow from the narrowed artery, and manifests itself as a pain in the nerves and even, in the absence of proper treatment, a heart attack.
What do “diseases of the electrical system of the heart” mean?
A human being is a some sort of electrical system. There are certain laws that govern the movement of electric current within the human body. The human body is an electrical system, where there is an electricity generator and conductors. These conductors are referred to as "pacemakers". Branched, they serve the normal functioning of the heart muscle. The electrical signals accumulating in the heart control the contraction of the four chambers of the heart, as well asthe number and rhythm of the heartbeats.
In the normal state, the heart pulse is transmitted by the second fractions - as a result of this, the chambers of the heart muscle contract at a time. However, in the event of a deviation from the norms, electrical signals cause an irregular pulse, an insufficient / excessive / chaotic heart rate. Arrhythmias of a victorious kind can lead to fainting, unstable heart contractions, dizziness, and other health-related problems. If you have a violation of the electrical pulse system of the heart, and you feel a significant increase in heart rate, you should immediately consult a doctor.
Often, arrhythmias are associated with experienced heart disease and muscle weakness. These problems are handled by a separate branch of cardiology - arrhythmology.
What do “diseases of the muscular system” mean?
The heart entirely consists of a muscular, yet rare species called myocardium (myo-muscle, cardio-heart).
Diseases of the heart muscle are divided into two types:
1. Weakened and thinned muscles;
2. Strong and condensed muscles.
Weakened and thinned heart muscle is not capable of distributing blood from the heart to other organs. Thus, the heart weakens as a result of damage to the wall of the heart muscle, experienced cardiac viral infection, heart valve disease that has not received proper treatment, and muscle overstrain.
Patients suffering from a weakened muscle are at risk of chronic heart failure, which can lead to excessive accumulation of fluid in the body, dyspnea, renal dysfunction.
Another form of chronic heart failure is diastolic heart failure (violation of relaxation and filling of the left ventricle). It is caused by hypertrophy of the myocardium, its fibrosis or infiltration. It leads to an increase in the final diastolic pressure in the left ventricle and the development of heart failure. In a typical case, the heart muscle itself is considered to be quite strong, but due to excessive accumulation of blood in the lungs, the diastolic pressure is constantly high.
What do “heart valve diseases” mean?
The heart has four valves that open and close all day long, without stopping. However, if the valves do not open or close properly, this can cause many health problems. In addition, the onset of the disease can occur without the manifestation of symptoms. Many people live without knowing about these problems for many years. A tiny, thin valve can signal the onset of major heart problems. In a normal state, the valves play the role of an "orienteer", directing the blood in the right channel and preventing its outflow. Abnormality of the valves leads to a rapid fatigue of the muscle, its depletion, deterioration of the quality of contractions. At best cases, valve diseases are treated by surgery.